Free access
Issue
Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser.
Volume 145, Number 3, September 2000
Page(s) 405 - 414
DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/aas:2000354
DOI: 10.1051/aas:2000354

Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 145, 405-414

Box- and peanut-shaped bulges[*] [*]

I. Statistics

R. Lütticke - R.-J. Dettmar - M. Pohlen

Astronomisches Institut, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany
e-mail: luett@astro.ruhr-uni-bochum.de

Received May 11; accepted June 13, 2000

Abstract:

We present a classification for bulges of a complete sample of $\sim$1350 edge-on disk galaxies derived from the RC3 (Third Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies, de Vaucouleurs et al. 1991). A visual classification of the bulges using the Digitized Sky Survey (DSS) in three types of b/p bulges or as an elliptical type is presented and supported by CCD images. NIR observations reveal that dust extinction does almost not influence the shape of bulges. There is no substantial difference between the shape of bulges in the optical and in the NIR. Our analysis reveals that 45% of all bulges are box- and peanut-shaped (b/p). The frequency of b/p bulges for all morphological types from S0 to Sd is > 40%. In particular, this is for the first time that such a large frequency of b/p bulges is reported for galaxies as late as Sd. The fraction of the observed b/p bulges is large enough to explain the b/p bulges by bars.

Key words: galaxies: evolution -- galaxies: spiral -- galaxies: statistics -- galaxies: structure

SIMBAD Objects
Tables at the CDS

Copyright The European Southern Observatory (ESO)

What is OpenURL?

The OpenURL standard is a protocol for transmission of metadata describing the resource that you wish to access.

An OpenURL link contains article metadata and directs it to the OpenURL server of your choice. The OpenURL server can provide access to the resource and also offer complementary services (specific search engine, export of references...). The OpenURL link can be generated by different means.

  • If your librarian has set up your subscription with an OpenURL resolver, OpenURL links appear automatically on the abstract pages.
  • You can define your own OpenURL resolver with your EDPS Account.
    In this case your choice will be given priority over that of your library.
  • You can use an add-on for your browser (Firefox or I.E.) to display OpenURL links on a page (see http://www.openly.com/openurlref/). You should disable this module if you wish to use the OpenURL server that you or your library have defined.