Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 140, 197-224
M.A.T. Groenewegen 1 - F. Baas 2 - J.A.D.L. Blommaert 3 - R. Stehle 4 - E. Josselin 5 - R.P.J. Tilanus2
Send offprint request: M. Groenewegen
1 - Max-Planck Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Straße 1, D-85740 Garching, Germany
2 - Joint Astronomy Centre, 660 N. A'ohoku Place, University Park, Hilo, HI 96720, U.S.A.
3 - ISO Data Centre, Astrophysics Division of ESA, P.O. Box 50727, E-28080 Villafranca-Madrid, Spain
4 - Department of Physics & Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
5 - Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (I.G.N.), Apartado 1143, E-28801 Alcalá de Henares, Spain
Received May 10; accepted September 8, 1999
The detection statistics is as follows: in 12CO J=1-0 and 2-1 we observed 97 stars, and detected 66 in at least one line. We find 24 new detections in the 1-0 line, 38 new detections in the 2-1 line, and 29 stars have been detected for the first time in one or both lines. In 12CO J=3-2 we observed 14 stars and detected 11, with 4 new detections. In 13CO J=2-1, 3-2 we observed 2 stars and had one new detection. In HCN(1-0) we observed 5 carbon stars and detected 3, one new. In SO(65-54) we observed the same 5 stars and detected none. In CS(3-2) we observed 8 carbon stars and detected 3, all new. In SiO(3-2, v=0) we observed 34 O-rich stars and detected 25, all new except one.
Near-infrared JHK photometry is presented for seven stars. For four stars it is the first NIR data published.
The luminosity and dust mass loss rate are obtained for seven very red stars with unknown pulsation period from modelling the spectral energy distribution (SED) and IRAS LRS spectra. Thereby, a new IR supergiant is confirmed (AFGL 2968). For the rest of the sample, luminosity and distance are obtained in a variety of ways: using HIPPARCOS parallaxes, period-luminosity and period-MK-relations combined with apparent K magnitudes, and kinematic distances.
The dust mass loss rate is obtained from model fitting of the SED (either from the literature, or presented in the present paper), or from the observed IRAS 60 m flux, corrected for the photospheric contribution. The gas mass loss rate is derived from the observed CO line intensities, as presented here, combined with existing literature data, if any. This allows the derivation of the dust-to-gas ratio. Our and literature CO J = 3-2 data has been used to calibrate the relation between mass loss rate and peak intensity of the CO(3-2) line.
Diagrams showing mass loss rate, dust-to-gas ratio and expansion
velocity versus pulsation period are presented. Our observations
confirm the existence of an upper limit for the expansion velocity of
C- and O-rich stars, and that this maximum is larger for C-stars, as
predicted by the theory of radiation pressure on dust particles.
Key words: circumstellar matter -- stars: mass loss -- stars: AGB